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105 Computers & InternetProgramming > Java  
Objects And Java


When you set out to design a Java program, you have to create abstractions. You are faced with a problem domain and (with luck) a specification, and you have to architect [bv: is architect a verb?] a solution. (The problem domain is the subject area of a particular programming effort, such as "accounting," "elevator control," or "word processing.") Given that Java is an object-oriented language, you will likely want to perform an object-oriented design. In the process, you will end up with abstractions in the form of objects, types, attributes, and behaviors.

The object-oriented design process involves the following three tasks:

  • dividing the problem domain into types of objects,
  • modeling the relationships between the types, and
  • modeling the attributes and behaviors of each type.

These tasks are not listed in any particular order. Most likely, you will perform these tasks iteratively throughout the design process.

In an object-oriented design, you identify the fundamental objects of the problem domain, the "things" involved. You then classify the objects into types by identifying groups of objects that have common characteristics and behaviors. The types of objects you identify in the problem domain become "types" in your solution. The program you write will create and manipulate objects of these types. By naming the types in your solution after the types in the problem, you build a vocabulary for expressing the solution out of the language you would use to describe the problem.

In addition to types that correspond to elements in the problem, the "problem domain types," your solution will likely have types that don't correspond to anything in the problem domain. For example, most programs will require types that deal with data management and user interface. An example of a data-management type is a hash table. You might use a hash table object in your program to speed lookup of a set of objects, even though there is no hash table object in the problem domain. The objects you are looking up in the hash table, however, might represent objects that exist in the problem domain. Some examples of user interface types might be button, window, and dialog.

The fundamental task of abstraction in an object-oriented design is to identify objects in the problem domain and then to classify the objects into types. As you divide the problem domain into types, you will to some degree model the relationships between the types as well. Objects can have three kinds of relationships:

  • the has-a relationship
  • the is-a relationship
  • the uses-a relationship

The has-a relationship means that one type of object contains another or is composed of another. Some examples are: a car has-an engine, a bicycle has-a wheel, and a coffee cup has coffee. The has-a relationship is modeled with composition, which is discussed in Chapter 6.

The is-a relationship means that one type of object is a more specific version of a general type. Some examples are: a car is-a vehicle, a bicycle is-a vehicle, and a coffee cup is-a cup. The is-a relationship is modeled with inheritance, which is also discussed in Chapter 6.

The uses-a relationship means that during some activity, one type of object uses another type of object. Some examples are: a car uses-a squeegee (during a window-washing activity), a bicycle uses-a pump (during a tire-pumping activity), and a coffee cup uses-a stirrer (during a stirring activity). The uses-a relationship will be discussed further in Chapter ?? [bv: which chapter?].

Along with dividing the problem domain into types and modeling their relationships, you must define attributes and behaviors that will characterize each type in the solution.

The attributes of a type define the nature of the state of objects of that type. An object's state is composed of values for all the attributes of the type. For example, two possible attributes for a bicycle type are speed and direction. An object of type bicycle would therefore have a state that is composed of values for speed and direction. Note that an object's state (the values of its attributes) can change over the lifetime of the object. A bicycle object, for example, could have a state of 15 mph and north at one point in time. Later, that same object could have state 10 mph and south.

In object-oriented thinking, interaction between objects is modeled as messages sent between objects and the action that objects take as a result. When you model the behavior of a type you define a set of messages that objects of that type will accept, and the actions that objects of that type will take upon receipt of those messages. The set of accepted messages and the resulting actions constitute services that are offered by the object.

As the designer of a type, you decide what an object of that type will do when it receives a message. Messages contain information, and an object can use the information contained in a received message along with the information represented by its own current state, to decide what to do. It may do nothing. It may send messages to other objects. It may change its own state. It may return some information to the message sender. Or it may do all of these things.

In computer science circles, the term "message" is often associated with asynchronous messaging, in which received messages can queue up and be processed by the recipient at some later time. In this object-oriented context, however, a message is simply a request coupled with some information that is passed to an object. In general, an object begins to process a message immediately upon receipt and potentially returns a reply to the sender. A message can have an effect that is delayed (similar to asynchronous messaging), but creating such a delayed effect is an option of the message recipient.

These design activities are processes of abstraction because out of all the elements of the problem domain, you are selecting only those that are important. As a result, in any one design you will likely ignore many elements of the problem domain. In your solution, you won't model every type of object you can possibly identify in the problem domain, only those that matter to your solution. Likewise, you won't model every attribute and every behavior of the types of objects you have chosen to represent in your solution, just those attributes and behaviors that are important to your solution. In a different problem domain, you might model different attributes and behaviors of the same types of objects. Thus, you are abstracting: pulling out what you feel is important about the problem domain, and using only those elements in your solution.

Designing a Virtual Café

As an example of an object-oriented design with the Java programming language, imagine you are designing a virtual café, a place in cyberspace where guests can sit at small tables, sipping virtual cups of coffee, and chatting with one another. The primary function of the café is that of a chat room: a place where people separated by (potentially vast) physical distances, but connected to the same network, can get together and converse. To make your chat room more inviting, you want it to look like a café. You want each participant to see graphical representations ("avatars") of the other people in the café. And to make the participant's experience more real, you want the people to be able to interact with certain items in the café, such as tables, chairs, and cups of coffee.

Identifying Types

To start your design process, visualize your virtual café on an average busy day. What objects do you see? Perhaps you see guests, tables and chairs, coffee cups, coffee, pitchers of milk, packets of sugar, coffee stirrers, and the café itself. These are the types of objects in your problem domain. By describing them in a human language, you are already classifying them, grouping related objects together. You may have 100 different coffee cups in your café--all distinct objects--but you place all 100 of them into the "coffee cup" category when you say, "I see 100 coffee cups." This is the first step in an object- oriented design: identifying objects in the problem domain, and grouping them by type.

As the designer, you must decide which objects to group into which categories. Just as describing a scene in human language is not an exact science--you have to pull out what's important and focus your description on that--neither is object-oriented design an exact science. There are many ways to slice up a given problem domain into objects and types. Because of this, you must focus on the types of objects you think will be most important in your solution. These will be the types that have the greatest interaction. For example, in the case of your virtual café, you may have artsy drawings hanging on the walls, but if those drawings do nothing but hang there, then perhaps they shouldn't be awarded with their own type. They can just be a characteristic of your café type.

So what types of objects are the most important in the virtual café? Ask yourself what kind of objects are involved in the activities of your café. Guests sit on chairs at tables and chat with their neighbors. They buy cups of coffee, add milk or sugar to them, swirl the result with a stirrer, and drink. If these are the primary activities that go on in your problem domain, then the types of objects involved should be what you most concern yourself with in your solution: guests, tables, chairs, coffee cups, coffee, milk, sugar, stirrers, and the café itself.

Each of these objects interacts with other objects. Chairs may host a guest or be empty. Tables can have different numbers of chairs. Both tables and chairs can be moved around the café. Tables can be moved together to accommodate large groups of guests. Coffee cups accept coffee, milk, sugar, and a swirling stirrer. They also release their contents sip by sip to the drinker, or can spill their contents all at once onto the table, onto the floor of the café, or more alarmingly, onto a guest.

Although the objects you group together will share characteristics and behaviors, they will usually not be identical copies of each other. There are many objects in your everyday experience that you would call coffee cups--some are made of styrofoam, some of ceramic; some are big, some small--but you still recognize them as coffee cups because of the characteristics and behaviors they have in common. Mainly, they hold coffee for you to drink. They allow you to add extras, such as sugar or milk, and to insert a stirrer to swirl the components into the perfect drink to suit your palette. If you knock them over, they'll spill their contents. The first step of object-oriented design, therefore, is creating abstract categories, such as "coffee cup", and placing different objects, each of which may have their own unique qualities, into the same category.

The first part of the process of abstraction usually involves not simply deciding upon lone types, but upon inheritance hierarchies of types. An inheritance hierarchy is a diagram showing the inheritance (is-a) relationships between types. Thus, as you determine types you will usually model is-a relationships with inheritance. To start with, however, this discussion will keep it simple and just focus on lone types. Inheritance will be discussed in Chapter 6.


 Additional Info
 No. 242
 Posted on 8 June, 2006
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